In Logic in Practice 1934 she had already aimed at a more general readership, including more overt political commentary than in A Modern Introduction to Logic, offering examples drawn from political speeches and newspaper reports to demonstrate examples of muddled argument and biased description. Becoming a Philosopher -- 3. A repeated target is Sir Stanley Baldwin, several times Conservative Prime Minister. Logical Positivism and Philosophy of Language 6. For more on the debates about analysis in the 1930s, see Baldwin 2013; Beaney 2003, 2016. Her publications include Paul Grice, Philosopher and Linguist; Thinking About Language, Theories of English; Language and Empiricism, After the Vienna Circle and Pragmatics.
She did not just argue that philosophers should pay attention to ordinary language; she illustrated her philosophical writings with a wealth of real life examples taken from everyday communicative interactions, including newspaper editorials, political speeches and advertising copy. Can they not be analysed further? First published in 1930, it was revised in 1933, and might justly be regarded as the first textbook of analytic philosophy: it went through several editions and was still being reprinted in the early 1960s. This work is indeed still worth celebrating in its own right and on its own terms, particularly in her bringing together traditional and modern logic and in her accounts of the key ideas and doctrines of the Cambridge School of Analysis. This book tells the story of the life and work of L. Whetnall married William James Smith on 30 August 1939.
Series Editor's Foreword Acknowledgements Abbreviations Introduction 1. She saw no discrepancy between the rigours of logical argument and the requirements of practical problem solving, and stressed the need for clarity and transparency in language use. This is turn opened up the possibility of the scientific viability of other types of truth or reality, including the mental, the spiritual and, for Eddington, the divine. The philosopher considers a given expression, and analyses it in order to find another expression which says more clearly what the original expression said less clearly. In this passage from his popular book The Nature of the Physical World 1935 , he is concerned with the atomic theory of matter: I am standing on the threshold about to enter a room. Once this distinction is drawn, it becomes possible to reject metaphysical analysis without rejecting analysis altogether. Stebbing defended the validity of moral discussion and the reality of moral principles, based on humanistic rather than religious credentials.
At the same time she devoted a great deal of time, influence, and personal income, to securing the safety of refugees from Germany and Nazi occupied countries: both exiled scholars and orphaned or fugitive children. But she was also concerned to introduce modern logic. Stebbing urged readers to hone their critical skills in order to identify uses of language that introduce assumptions rather than make direct statements, or that hide parts of an argument that in logic would need to be made explicit. This first book-length study of the work and life of L. A green link indicates that the item is available online at least partially.
This is precisely the conception of analysis that she had attempted to articulate and defend in her 1932 paper. During her last years, her work became increasingly socially and politically engaged, although she herself continued to shun public recognition or any suggestion of personal political activism. In the preface she writes: The study of logic does not in itself suffice to enable us to reason correctly, still less to think clearly where our passionate beliefs are concerned. She combined her commitment to formal logic with a belief in the importance of practical analysis of everyday texts and as a result in the necessity of public engagement by philosophers, in a manner which was at the time rare in academia. Susan Stebbing and the language of common sense. The University does not edit this information and merely includes it as a convenience for users. As with any review users should approach reviews critically and where deemed necessary should consult multiple review sources.
In attempting to clarify both directional analysis and postulational analysis, and to defend the former and criticise the latter, however, she helped sharpen the issues in dispute between the Cambridge School and logical positivism. The third assumption gives her the most difficulty, however. It also assesses Stebbing's work in the light of subsequent developments both in analytic philosophy and in linguistics, and suggests that it has important contributions to make in both fields. Logic and Ideals -- 9. Susan Stebbing relates the development ofher thought to the philosophical, social and political background of her life. Her final philosophical contribution was Men and Moral Principles, delivered as a London School of Economics Hobhouse Memorial Lecture a few months before she died and published posthumously as a pamphlet in 1944.
This may be sufficient to elucidate its logical form or to remove certain confusions to which it may give rise. Philosophy and the Physicists 1937 and Thinking to Some Purpose 1939 , her two most important books addressed to a more general audience, can also be regarded as among the first books of critical thinking, anticipating developments in sociolinguistics, pragmatics and critical discourse analysis. Pragmatics, which can trace a direct descent from ordinary language philosophy through figures such as Austin and Grice, considers meaning in relation to the intentions, functions and contexts associated with the use of linguistic forms. She was born in 1885 in North London, the youngest of six surviving children of a fish merchant. She contributed to works on logic such as the revised edition of James Welton's An Intermediate Logic. Reasoning proceeds in accord with certain rules and exhibits certain forms of inference, and one of the tasks of logical theory is to articulate these rules and make explicit these forms of inference—as Aristotle first did in developing his theory of the syllogism. Stebbing worried that imprecise, impressionistic or sensational uses of language obscured the nature of recent scientific advances and, worse still, encouraged unjustified inferences and beliefs to be drawn from them.
Stebbing's early writings were concerned with formal logic, but she came increasingly to believe in the importance of exposing misleading uses of language in, for instance, popular works of science, advertisements, newspaper editorials and political propaganda. Eddington argued that the behaviour of material objects was now shown to be random and unpredictable, rather than controlled by determinate laws of physics. After various short-term and part-time posts teaching in schools and universities, she was appointed to a lectureship at Bedford College for women, in the University of London, in 1920. Clumsily I stumble against the table, bruising my leg against its hard edge; it is a heavy table and scarcely moves under the impact of my weight. She does not give any systematic presentation of the predicate calculus, however.
In short—I am in a familiar room, seeing, touching, smelling, familiar things, thinking familiar thoughts, experiencing familiar emotions. Politics and Critical Thinking During the mid 1930s, Stebbing engaged increasingly with a general or even popular, as opposed to an exclusively philosophical or academic, audience. She returned to Bedford College as Stebbing's temporary replacement during 1930 and 1931 She also taught at the for Working Women, Surbiton, a women's residential college from 1932 to 1943. Indeed, Moore argued, one could not even raise the question of its correct analysis or judge the correctness of any analysis that was offered if one did not understand the proposition in the first place. But its normativity is not its distinguishing feature, she argues, but is merely a by-product of the fact that norms are what are discovered in logic. Simply replacing our ordinary vague concepts by precise ones does not genuinely show what it was we understood.
Stebbing became increasingly interested not just in the significance and potentialities of everyday language but also in the social and ideological implications of how it is used in society, particularly by those in authority. That was my first meeting with Moore, whose name I discovered only towards the end of the discussion. However useful such a system may be in showing what can be constructed with the fewest possible assumptions and primitive terms, she argues, the world itself is not such a system. What she rejected was its repudiation of metaphysics. Susan Stebbing 1885-1943 , the first woman Professor of Philosophy in Britain, and the author of a number of popular books, including Thinking to Some Purpose 1939. This experiment has been authorized by the editors of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.